A&P II 502
Good morning Mr. Smith and thank you for coming to the Family Medical Office. I am Dr. Shaw and I will be working with you to figure out why you are experiencing problems breathing and see how I can help you with this. You have said that just in the last year you have been having issues breathing. Since you have not changed anything in your lifestyle, we will go through a series of questions and tests to determine the problems that may help diagnosis you.
Something that you have shared with me is that you are a smoker and have been for quite some time. One of the first things I would like to do is see how strong your lungs are. First we will start with a chest x-ray. Unfortunately this will not be the only test that we will need. Next we will do a CT scan (computerized tomography) that will take images in several directions of your internal organs.
Below you will see two photos of a chest x-ray. The one on the left is a normal x-ray of a healthy individual. The one on the right is your chest x-ray results. I do believe Mr. Smith that we are dealing with you suffering from emphysema resulting from smoking. You will notice in your x-ray the white cloudy like images. This is occurring in the upper lobes of both lungs from the result of emphysema.
I would like to go over what a set of normal lungs do to help us breath. The lungs are designed to take in oxygen from the air and remove carbon dioxide from the body. This process is called gas exchange. Without this we would not be able to breathe. With emphysema, the cilia are being destroyed from the tar and chemicals in the cigarettes that is creating the mucus in the lungs.
The right lung is shorter than the left to make room for the liver as it is positioned higher on the right side. The right lung contains three lobes – superior, middle and inferior. The horizontal fissure is the groove...