The Age of Industrial Revolution
The nineteenth century expansion into industrialization caused changes in European life that transformed the societal structure the classes of its citizens. The 19th-century was a time of rapid social, political, and scientific change. The revolution transformed the means of production and directly challenged the old guild system with its master craftsmen who had dominated and regulated the urban economy.
Political change, population growth, industrialization, and urbanization altered the way people lived and the way in which society was perceived; society was described most often using terms such as a few broad strata, or classes. The contrasts between middle classed society and the working poor differentiated tremendously from education, working conditions, income and living conditions. A person was said to belong to a given social class less on the basis of connection to others than as an attribute of his, or her husband’s occupation; the source of income was assumed to imply something of the values held, the style of life led, and later, the political and social interests likely to be favored. This was how one could come to describe the contrast between the middle class and urban poor because of the inequality in the national societal structure.
Factories were the new symbol of power. It changed the system of production, labor, competition, pricing, wages, and the market. It was the guiding force in reshaping the lives of
men, women, and children. The overwhelming majority of all Europeans were peasants, a social class tied firmly to the land and to the traditions of aristocracy, and they were deeply divided between those that owned land and those who were forced to sell their labor. Rural families were part of an elaborate putting-out system that supplied village weavers with raw materials and later collected their finished products, this type of economic activity was referred to as protoindustrialization,...