Agency Theory and its strengths
* Milgrams agency theory states that in everyday life we live in an autonomous state, this means we act for our selves and make our own decisions, however when we are told or ordered to do something by a person in a position of authority, we switch to the agentic state which means we then become the agents of the person in authority and this when we tend to obey orders. When people go from the autonomous state to the agentic state they follow orders and give up their responsibility without any consideration for consequences or whether in fact what they have been asked to do is appropriate. This lack of responsibility from them means that the person no longer monitors their own behaviour.
* Milgram was identified as the authority figure by students. He endorsed all responsibility to himself and not to the participant on the treatment of the learner. Therefore the participants were not to blame for their actions as they were in an agentic state.
* This experiment resulted in that 65% of the participants carried on shocking to a dangerous and deadly level of voltage by obeying the experimenter although getting very distressed.
* People have different personalities and have many differences in their obedience levels. Therefore it does not explain fully the ability of leaders to command obedience from those below them.
Gradual commitment and its strengths
* The ‘foot in the door’ effect is known as gradual commitment. Participants were paid $4 to take part in the study and that was just to turn up but that would make it harder to turn away because they had been paid.
* Participants were giving shocks to the learner that increased at 15vlts a time. This would make it more difficult to refuse to continue because it’s in such small increments you wouldn’t think it was doing much harm increasing like that.
* Most of them found themselves reaching the voltage where they could have killed...