Discuss Alternative Evidence to Bennett levy and Marteau’s research.
There is alternative evidence to that of Bennett levy and Marteau’s research, there are three examples of this:
Rapid learning – Seligman found that 2-4 shocks where enough to create a phobia by linking the shocks to a picture to a snake or spider this is known as classical conditioning. He found that larger shocks where required to create the same type of phobia towards a picture of a flower.
The research from Bennett – Levy and Marteau’s research was very different from this because they found that it was the way the animal looked or moved that created fear of the animal, whereas Seligman used classical conditioning and got the participant to associate the picture with the bad feeling (shock).
The second example would be:
Extinction Öhman found that fears towards a stimulus such as houses or flowers became extinct when it was no longer paired with a shock, and instead the fears became paired with stimulus’s such as spiders or snakes, this evidence is not similar to Bennett and Marteau’s, however it does link into the evidence from Seligman’s research as they both talk about classical conditioning and the association between the stimulus and the shock.
The third is called Contrapreparedness, McNally and Reiss found that associations with the FR stimulus are not likely to be learnt, but conditioned. There is an association between the FR stimuli (picture of a spider), or FI stimuli (picture of a flower) with a safety signal, (absence of a shock), if the conditioning was successful than the person will be relieved when they do not feel the shock, so therefore eventually they will have no need to fear the stimulus.
This is different from Bennett – Levy’s and Martueau’s study as it does not involve the idea of classical conditioning but it does link into that of Seligman.