Chapter 9 Outline
I. The Pursuit of Equality
1. The American Revolution was more of an accelerated evolution than a revolution.
2. However, the exodus of some 80,000 Loyalists left a great lack of conservatives.
* This weakening of the aristocratic “upper crust” let Patriot elites emerge.
3. The fight for separation of church and state resulted in notable gains.
* The Congregational church continued to be legally established (tax
supported) by some New England states, but the Anglican Church was
humbled and reformed as the Protestant Episcopal Church.
4. Slavery was a large, problematic issue, as the Continental Congress
of 1774 had called for the abolition of slavery, and in 1775, the
Philadelphia Quakers founded the world’s first antislavery
* This new spirit that “all men are created equal” even inspired a few slave owners to free their slaves.
5. Another issue was women. They still were unequal to men, even
though some had served (disguised as men) in the Revolutionary War.
* There were some achievements for women such as New Jersey’s 1776 constitution which allowed women to vote (for a time).
* Mothers devoted to their families were developed as an idea of
“republican motherhood” and elevated women to higher
statuses as keepers of the nation’s conscience. Women raised the
children and thereby held the future of the republic in their hands.
II. Constitution Making in the States
1. The Continental Congress of 1776 called upon colonies to draft new
constitutions (thus began the formation of the Articles of the
* Massachusetts contributed one innovation when it called a special
convention to draft its constitution and made it so that the
constitution could only be changed through another specially called
* Many states had written documents that represented a fundamental law.
* Many had a bill of rights and also...