Philsophy of Religion; Ancient Greek influences
Aristotle 384 BC - 322 BC
Aristotle is a Greek philosopher and the founder of the science of logic. He is one of the greatest intellectual figures in western history. Aristotle studied under Plato (another ancient Greek philosopher) at the academy in Athens. After Plato's death he tutored the young Alexander the Great before founding the Lyceum. Anti-Macedonian disturbances forced Aristotle to flee (323 BC) to Chalesis on the island of Euboea, where here died. In direct opposoition to Platos idealism. Aristotles metaphysics was based on the principle that all knowledge continues directly from observation of the particular. Aristotle argued that a particular object can only be explained through an understanding of causality.
Aristotle outlined four cases: the material cause (an objects substance); formal cause (design); efficient cause (maker) and the final cause (function). For aristotle, the final cause was the main one. His ethical philosophy stressed the exercise of rationality in political and intellectual life.
Aristotle's errors, however, were able to be modified by later thinkers largely through the use of Aristotle's scientific epistemology. In other words, Aristotle's mistakes were often identified and rectified because of the fundamentals of his own philosophy. I feel that to fault his errors would be wrong given that he had to begin with little knowledge and he had to produce his philosophy from scratch unlike moderns philosophers who can build upon well researched philosophy.
Aristotle’s writings cover almost every branch of human knowledge covering the majority of the sciences and many of the arts, including biology, botany, chemistry, ethics, history, logic, metaphysics, rhetoric, philsosophy of mind, philosophy of science, physics, poetics, political theory, psychology, and zoology. His writings in ethics and political theory as well as in metaphysics and the...