Psychology Karen Revision - Attachment
Definition of Attachment
• A close emotional bond between 2 people characterised by mutual affection and a desire to maintain closeness.
The Stage Theory (Schaffer and Emerson)
Schaffer and Emerson developed a stage theory of attachment (based on their 2 year study of Glaswegian babies)
• The Asocial Stage (0 – 6 weeks)
During this stage, emotional behaviour such as crying and smiling is directed at anyone or anything.
• Indiscriminate attachment (6 weeks – 7 months) – During this stage, the infant is generally content when receiving attention from anyone.
• Specific attachment (7-11 months) – The infant in this stage forms a strong attachment to one individual, but good attachments to others often follow shortly after this.
• + The view that the development of attachment is primarily through a series of stages has received a degree of approval. Observations seem to support the stage theory. In fact, researchers go as far as suggesting that most children in all societies go through these stages in much the same way.
• + There is also an acceptance of separation protest and separation anxiety, which has also been found in several studies. These responses suggest that children have formed schemas for familiar or unfamiliar people.
• - Many researchers actually disagree with the concept of the asocial stage. Bowlby, for example, believed that babies were equipped with a range of social behaviours such as babbling and crying that forms the basis for them to behave in social ways towards people.
• - Also, later research also suggested that babies are not as asocial as described. Research indicates how babies will smile more broadly when they see their caregiver or hear their voice. Evidence also points to the fact that even at one week old, babies are able to recognise their mothers face.
• - The idea suggests that development is ‘fixed’- that children...