1. When in doubt, answer CARBON. Carbon is the most important element of life. When you have a question about elements or molecules staring you in the face, and you have no idea what the answer is?--look for carbon.
2. CHNOPS. Besides carbon, 5 other elements are very important to living things. These elements are: HYDROGEN, NITROGEN, OXYGEN, PHOSPHORUS, SULFUR. Look for these key words in multiple choice answers.
3. Carbohydrates are sugars [ex. Glucose]. If you see a hexagon shaped molecule, it is probably a carbohydrate.
4. LIPIDS ARE FAT. They have an end that loves water and an end that hates water. Lipids make up the cell membrane [phospholipid bilayer].
5. Proteins are made up of amino acids.
DNA is made of nucleic acids.
Replication is the copying of DNA.
Transription is mRNA copied form.
DNA translation is the decoding of mRNA by tRNA to collect amino acids to make proteins. [protein synthesis]
6. Prokaryote cells have no nucleus. PRO MEANS NO nucleus. Prokaryotes are archaebaacteria and eubacteria. Only EUKARYOTES have nuclei and other organelles with membranes. Eukaryotes are the protista, fungi, plantae, and animalia.
7. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution means species are changing over time. Species are groups of the same living things that can produce offspring.
8. Cells make up tissue, which makes up organs. Organs make up organ systems, which in turn make up organisms.
9. Nucleus is the brain of the cell.
Ribosomes make protein.
Mitochondria are the batteries; make energy.
10. Plant cells are different from animal cells because they have flat cell walls and chloroplasts, where photosynthesis makes the plant's food.