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Bipolar Genetics Essay

  • Submitted by: nicolelmontalvo1
  • on November 13, 2012
  • Category: Psychology
  • Length: 2,974 words

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Below is an essay on "Bipolar Genetics" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

J Med Genet 1999;36:585–594


Review article

Genetics of bipolar disorder
Nick Craddock, Ian Jones

Division of
University of
Birmingham, Queen
Elizabeth Psychiatric
Hospital, Mindelsohn
Way, Birmingham
B15 2QZ, UK
N Craddock
I Jones

Bipolar disorder (also known as manic
depressive illness) is a complex genetic
disorder in which the core feature is
pathological disturbance in mood (aVect)
ranging from extreme elation, or mania,
to severe depression usually accompanied
by disturbances in thinking and behaviour. The lifetime prevalence of 1% is
similar in males and females and family,
twin, and adoption studies provide robust
evidence for a major genetic contribution
to risk. There are methodological impediments to precise quantification, but the
approximate lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are:
monozygotic co-twin 40-70%; first degree
relative 5-10%; unrelated person 0.5-1.5%.
Occasional families may exist in which a
single gene plays the major role in determining susceptibility, but the majority of
bipolar disorder involves the interaction
of multiple genes (epistasis) or more complex genetic mechanisms (such as dynamic
Molecular genetic positional and candidate gene approaches are being used for
the genetic dissection of bipolar disorder.
No gene has yet been identified but promising findings are emerging. Regions of
interest identified in linkage studies include 4p16, 12q23-q24, 16p13, 21q22, and
Xq24-q26. Chromosome 18 is also of
interest but the findings are confusing
with up to three possible regions implicated. To date most candidate gene studies
have focused on neurotransmitter systems
influenced by medication used in clinical
management of the disorder but no robust
positive findings have yet emerged. It is,
however, almost certain that over the next
few years bipolar susceptibility genes will
be identified. This will have a...

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