Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology
The early history of psychology
A. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
B. The mental process can be either physiological or cognitive.
C. Originally, psychology was based on the principles of physiology and philosophy.
D. Psychology is derived from two Greek words, (psyche; soul), (logos; the study of a subject).
E. Psychology became a scientific discipline in the late 1870’s.
Psychology’s first founder, William Wundt
A. Wundt was a German professor who argued that psychology should be a scientific study of consciousness.
B. Created first scientific lab at the University of Leipzig in 1879.
C. Published his first psychological journal in 1881.
D. Wundt left Germany to host labs in America at John Hopkins University in 1883, and later became the first president of the American Psychological Association in 1892.
Structuralism vs. Functionalism
A. Structuralism, taught by Edward Titchener, thought of psychology as a way to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate on how they are related (sensations, feeling, images) through introspection, or self-observations of the consciousness.
B. Functionalism, taught by William James believed that psychology should focus on the function, or purpose or consciousness rather than its structure.
1. William James wrote the Principles of Psychology in 1890, which became the most influential psychological book in history.
2. Based on Darwin’s theory of natural selection, psychological characteristics must serve a purpose through the function of consciousness, not the structure of it.
3. Functionalism progressed into two modern schools of psychology; applied psychology and behaviorism.
Sigmund Freud and the Unconscious
A. Freud was an advocate of the unconscious, or (thoughts, memories, dreams) that could be influential to behavior through observation of dialog, or dreams.
B. Freud believed that personal disturbances...