Chapter 16 Study Guide
What Is It?
Martin Luther: German Monk, priest, professor of theology and an important figure of the Protestant reformation.
Medici: House of Medici. Political dynasty, banking family and later royal house.
Louis XIV: Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre. Reign lasted 72 years and is one of the longest in French and European history.
John Calvin: Influential French and theologian and pastor during Protestant Reformation.
Oliver Cromwell: English Military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
Voltaire: French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher famous for his wit and advocacy of civil liberties.
Galileo: Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.
Copernicus: Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.
Tycho Brahe: Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
Johannes Kepler: German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. Key figure of the scientific revolution.
Philip II: King of Spain, during his marriage to Queen Mary I, he was King of England and Ireland and ‘pretender to the kingdom of France’.
Henry VIII: King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. He was Lord and later King of Ireland as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France.
Elizabeth I: Queen or regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Called the Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess. The fifth and last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty.
Charles V: Ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516. Voluntary retirement.
John Locke: Widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism. English philosopher and...