Sara Dauber 9/19/12
Settling the Northern Colonies, 1619 - 1700
A. The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism
* German friar Martin Luther denounced the authority of the priests and popes when he nailed his protests against Catholic doctrines to the door of Wittenberg's cathedral in 1517.
* He declared that the Bible alone was the source of God's words. He started the "Protestant Reformation."
* John Calvin of Geneva elaborated Martin Luther's ideas. He spelled out his basic doctrine in Latin in 1536, entitled Institutes of the Christian Religion. These ideas formed Calvinism.
* When King Henry VIII broke his ties with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, he formed the Protestant Church. There were a few people who wanted to see the process of taking Catholicism out of England occur more quickly. (Puritans)
* A tiny group of Puritans (Separatists) broke away from the Church of England. Fearing that his subjects would defy him both as their political leader and spiritual leader, King James I, the head of state of England and head of the church from 1603-1625, threatened to harass the more bothersome the Separatists out of the land.
B. The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth
* A group of Separatists in Holland came to America in search for religious freedom. The group settled outside the domain of the Virginia Company and, without legal permission, settled in Plymouth Bay in 1620.
* Captain Myles Standish- prominent among the non-belongers of the Mayflower who came to Plymouth Bay; an Indian fighter and negotiator.
* Before disembarking from the Mayflower, the Pilgrim leaders drew up and signed the Mayflower Compact.
* An agreement to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon.
* 41 adult males signed it. It was the first attempt at a government in America.
* In the Pilgrims' first winter of 1620-1621, only 44 of...