100 day reforms: was led by Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao in 1898. They published treaties that interpreting Confucian thought in a way that justified radical changes in the imperial system. They wanted to remark China and turn it into a powerful industrialized society. They are supported by the open-minded emperor Guangxu, and launched a program to transform China into a constitutional monarchy and encouraged foreign influence. However, this reform generated a violent reaction from members of imperial household, and also Empress Cixi. Cixi soon nullified the reform decrees, imprisoned the emperor, and executed the six leaders.
Boxer Rebellion: Cixi threw her support behind an antiforeign uprising known as the Boxer rebellions, which is a violent movement spearheaded by militia units calling themselves the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists. Began in 1899, the Boxers made a rampage killing foreigners. Finally, a heavily armed forced by foreigners crushed the Boxers.
Cohongs: This is a licensed Chinese firm that foreigners can only use to deal, which make the inconveniency of international trades. And also bought and sold goods at set prices and operated under strict regulation established by the government.
Grand Canal: This is where British forces stroke at in Opium war, which linked the Yangzi and Yellow River valleys, with the aid of steam-powered gunboats. As British ships enjoyed the geographical advantages, they soon advanced up the Yangzi River, and at this point, China sued for peace. In this war, China exposed their military weaknesses.
Hong Xiuquan: the village teacher who led the Taiping program, which almost brought Qing dynasty to an end. He provided both inspiration and leadership. This reform contained many radical features that appealed to discontented subjects, including the abolition of private property, the creation of communal wealth to be shared according to needs, the prohibition of foot binding, and concubinage of free...