What are the cellular mechanisms that result in the clinical symptoms of cholera?
Cholera is a disease characterized by its symptoms such as extreme diarrhea and dehydration. Cholera can cause death within hours of entry into the host’s body (Lencer 2001). It is commonly observed in third world countries, due to a lack of sanitary water; the disease strives in aqueous conditions. There are over two hundred strains of cholera, however only a few of these strains are known to have the toxin, which causes the disease of cholera (Tobin-Dngelo 2008). The rational behind the various strains of cholera is due to the toxins that each strain contains (Tobin-Dngelo 2008). The cellular mechanisms that cause cholera are critical in the development, and severity of the disease.
The symptoms of cholera are caused by the cholera toxin (CT) (Lencer 2001). The cholera virus consists of two chromosomes. One of these chromosomes contains the virulence factors such as CT, and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) (Lencer 2001) . CT is created by Vibrio cholerae, and is the main factor associated with the symptoms of the disease (Lencer 2001). Cholera toxin exists as a protein, its pathway through the cell is similar to most protein (Lencer 2003). The cholera toxin begins at the plasma membrane and moves through the trans-Golgi network, and endoplasmic reticulum to the final destination at the cytosol (Lencer 2003).
In order to induce toxicity inside of the cell, the cholera toxin unfolds itself while entering the cytosol (Lencer 2003). This enables CT to adapt the cellular machinery within the cell. The cellular machinery is responsible for allowing misfolded proteins into the proteasome (Lencer 2003). Once in the proteasome the cholera toxin can induce toxicity (Lencer 2003). The toxin uses a glycolipid pathway, whereas most toxins use a protein pathway (Lencer 2003). Cholera is able to exploit the glycolipid pathway by binding to glycolipids (Lencer 2003). CT travels...