CLEAN AND UNCLEAN
The author introduces the system of first century Jewish Temple where he talk about the concepts of sacred and profane. The author tells us that the sacred is setting from the rest (holy) and this relies on personal conditions (Malina, 2001, p. 163). He further goes on to tell us that profane is the opposite of sacred, therefore the two terms are used to describe human relationship of exclusivity in relation to a person or thing (Malina, 2001, p. 163). Furthermore, sacred and profane become subcategories of purity rules which deals with “times and places for everything and everyone” (Malina, 2001, p. 165), and concerned with dirt thus particular to a group. There is also an element of anomalies, which is something irregular, and also abominations which are a reaction to anomalies (Malina, 2001, p. 166). Purity rules are set to deal with a system or order in relation to general acceptable standards within a particular culture (Malina, 2001, p. 168).
Israel’s principles dictated that to God exclusivity meant sacred and hence Israel as a nation is exclusive, therefore, they established a set of living standards that served as a matrix for clean and unclean (Malina, 2001, p. 171). In Israel’s terms, people were classified according to categories of purity rules and were by default depending on the line of birth (Malina, 2001, p. 174), and also, animals were also classified according purity rules (Malina, 2001, p. 177).
The author also talks about sanctifying (making holy) as a result of a traditional Jewish process of worship called sacrificing which was done to restore or convert to an original state (Malina, 2001, p. 182). This process was done Jerusalem Temple which had a place of assembly, an intermediate place and God’s space (Malina, 2001, p. 183). Jesus comes in the picture to challenge the general social purpose of purity rules as they were traditionally known to be oppressive to certain sectors of people, therefore making it easy for...