Through this research I will discuss and describe the issues and characteristics of the conquest and colonization of America. Colonization was a really important period of time for the development of this continent, which resulted in the transformation of the foreign land into a territory ruled under the political, economic and social aspects by Spaniards. This was caused by the immense need for expansion of the European countries, which did not longer have free territory to appropriate and incredible thirst for more riches that were no longer easy to find.
The economy of the American colonies was based on mining of gold and silver, especially in northern Mexico and Potosi (Bolivia), agriculture and livestock worked by Indian or slaves brought from Africa. The trade with America was a royal monopoly that was done through the Indian fleet, which sailed annually with military protection. In 1543, it created a fleet of ships to protect the shipments of gold and precious stones that were sent to Spain from America. The trade was conducted through some personal appointed by the crown, which gave rise to a strict mercantilist system throughout the empire. The commercial monopoly was originated and regulated from the ports designated for the Carrera de Las Indias, which were the ports of Seville and Cadiz; on the peninsula and Portobello and Veracruz and in America.
Spanish became the official language; this played a unifying role in the colonial society. Therefore, after the conquest was forbidden to indigenous and black people to speak in their own languages, so they had to learn Spanish. Something similar happened with the customs and dress. It was important to standardize the behaviors of the society.
The King was above all the state apparatus. After the king the head of this system was the "Council of the Indies" which was an agency with a greater authority legislative and administrative. Also divided the territories in Viceroyalties, General...