AP Biology Semester Final Review
What are the four emergent properties of water? What bonds within water contribute to each of the four properties. (know the concept of polar covalent and hydrogen bonding).
1) Cohesive behavior
2) The ability to moderate temperature
3) Expansion upon freezing
4) Versatile solvent
* Hydrogen Bonding
What is an acid in terms of H+ donor or acceptor? What is a base in terms of H+ donor or acceptor. Know pH of acids and bases.
* Acid is a proton donor
* Base is a proton acceptor
What are the three categories of isomers. Define each.
* Structural isomers differ in the order in which the atoms are connected so they contain different functional groups and / or bonding patterns: example: 1-propanol, 2-propanol and ethyl methyl ether (C3H8O)
* Geometric isomers differ in the spatial position around a bond with restricted rotation (e.g. a double bond): E-2-butene and Z-2-butene
* Enantiomers are optical isomers that are non-superimposable mirror images. (R)- or (S)-2-chlorobutane. Try moving the images to show that they are mirror images, and make sure you can assign their configurations correctly.
What is a chaperonin protein?
* Proteins that fold and unfold other proteins
What are factors (biotic, abiotic) that can affect a population?
* Abiotic (non-living) factors include weather, resources, water supply, light, minerals available, disease and altitude.
* Biotic (living) factors include predator/prey relationships, parasites or other pests, introduction of an exotic species, competition, food supply and warfare.
Know the levels of organization from organism to biosphere and the definition of each.
* the levels of biological organization from biosphere to organism:
* the biosphere, biomes, ecotones , ecosystems, communities, populations, organisms, organs and organ systems tissues, cells, organelles, and molecules
R selection vs. K selection....