CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY THEORIES
The field of CSR not only offers not only a landscape of theories but also a constant development of approaches, which may be intertwining, complex and perhaps unclear as well. Therefore, through this report we will try to sort this situation out by mapping the territorial scope of CSR. This will be done by classifying CSR theories and approaches into four categories:
1. The Instrumental Theories: In this category, the organisation is seen solely as a mode of wealth creation, and that its social activities are aimed to achieve economic results.
2. The Political Theories: In this category, the organisation is seen as a powerful entity of the society, and it uses this power in the political arena as well.
3. The Integrative Theories: In this category, the organisation is seen as a entity focused on satisfaction of social demands.
4. The Ethical Theories: In this category, the organisation is seen as a ethically responsible member of the society.
The second half of the 2oth century and ahead, has seen a long debate on corporate social responsibility. The approach to CSR has gradually yet significantly changed over the years. In 1953, Bowen wrote the seminal book 'Social Responsibility of the businessmen', since then the terminology has shifted from social responsibility of business to CSR. Recently, rekindled interest in CSR has brought up new alternative concepts of Corporate Sustainability^1 and Corporate Citizenship^2. Frederick (1987, 1998) outlined a classification based on a conceptual transition from the ethical–philosophical concept of CSR (which he called CSR1), to the action-oriented managerial concept of social responsiveness (CSR2). He then included a normative element based on ethics and values (CSR3) and finally he introduced the cosmos as the basic normative reference for social issues in management and considered the role of science and religion in these issues (CSR4). For a proper...