Describe and evaluate the impact of two teratogens on a child’s
The process of prenatal is similar for almost every human being where, the genetic instructions go throw different stages, from the zygote to embryo, from embryo to develop into the fetus. This prenatal process is an example of how nature is important in the development. However another important aspect for the prenatal process is the environment where the embryo and fetus is nurtured.
There are many agents in the environment that can have a detrimental effect on developing foetuses. These external agents are called teratogens and they can cause damage or death during prenatal development. (Bee, H. 2010)
One of these teratogens is legal drugs. Most of these drugs particular the prescription and over-the-counter are safe for pregnant women but, there are some drugs that can have harmful effects like for example thalidomide, DES and the most dangerous ones are cigarettes and alcohol.
It is well know that cigarettes are unhealthy for the smoker reducing the oxygen in the body. If a pregnant woman gets less oxygen every time she smokes a cigarette so does her fetus reducing blood flow and nutrition to the placenta. Also the fetus metabolise the agents contained in the tobacco which can causing cancer. (Siegler, R. Deloache, J. Eisenberg, N. 2006)
The main effects that can compromise the health of the infant are retarded growth and low birth weight. Statistic shows that those babies born to heavy smoker average weight half a pound less than baby of non-smokers. Also evidence suggest that smoking may increase the risk of sudden infant death syndrome and other problems like lower IQ, hearing deficits, asthma, respiratory infection, and cancer. Most of pregnant women carrion smoking after giving birth so they expose their children to teratogens before and after they are born.( Siegler et al.2006)...