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Biology Research Paper
Submitted by: Ian Nipay 12 B-3
Submitted to: Ms. Rahima
Submitted on: September 23, 2012
American International School

Ian Nipay
12 B-3
September 22 2012

Fermentation in the Food Industry: Bread Making
Fermentation is a very important metabolic process that can be used to prepare lots of different kinds of edible goods such as bread, tea, coffee, vinegar, pickles, and many more. Bread-making for instance, involves the use of fermentation. Yeast, which is one of the many things that composes bread, plays a very important role in bread-making. It is a reactant that contains enzymes necessary to get the fermentation process going. Together with water and sugar, yeast breaks down sugar into ethanol and carbon dioxide in the absence of oxygen through what is known as fermentation, which is an anaerobic reaction.
Microorganisms used in dairy production
Most cultured dairy products we eat such as cheese, milk, yoghurt, and what not go through processes involving the use of bacteria and fungi. Some fungi are used to add flavor to different types of cheeses. Some bacteria found in milk can be used to produce yoghurt.
When producing yoghurt, factories would involve the use of beneficial/good bacteria in milk. They inoculate bacteria like Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus into milk to culture it. These bacteria would ferment and thicken the milk, making it creamier and adding a little bit of difference to its taste. Then they would heat the milk in a 100-degrees F until the milk naturally turns into yoghurt.
In the cheese industry, cheese is made by using certain types of bacteria. Most of them are made with beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacilli and Lactococci. These bacteria ferment milk and convert sugar into lactic acid. As soon as the fermentation is over, the liquid part of the milk and its solid curds (cheese) are separated.

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