Foodborne Illness Short Answers
1. Giardia is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites of the phylum Retortamonada in the super group “Excavata” that colonize and reproduce in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis. Once a person or animal has been infected with Giardia, the parasite lives in the intestines and is passed in the feces (poop). Once outside the body, Giardia can sometimes survive for weeks or months. Giardia can be found within every region of the United States and around the world. In developed countries, it has infected 2% of the adults and 6 to 8% of children. In developing (or under develop) countries, it has infected nearly 33% of the peoples population. In the United States, Giardia infection is the most common intestinal parasitic disease affecting humans. It is basically a very bad stomach bug that will have you in the bathroom for long periods of time.
2. Giardia lives inside the intestines of infected humans or animals. Individuals become infected through ingesting or coming into contact with contaminated food, soil, or water. The Giardia parasite originates from contaminated items and surfaces that have been tainted by the feces of an infected person or animal. Person-to-person transmission accounts for the majority of Giardia infections and is usually associated with poor hygiene and sanitation. Water-borne transmissions are associated with the ingestion of contaminated water. In the United States, outbreaks typically occur in small water systems using inadequately treated surface water. Venereal transmission happens through fecal – oral contamination. Additionally, diaper changing and inadequate hand washing are risk factors for transmissions from infected children. Lastly, food – borne epidemics of Giardia have developed through the contamination of food by infected food handlers.
3. In 2007, a community giardiasis outbreak occurred in New Hampshire, USA. We conducted...