COMPONENTS | FEATURES | FUNCTION |
MOUTHpH 6.8-7.0 | * Cheeks and Lips * Tongue * Hard & Soft Palate * Teeth * Salivary Glands | * Retains food in the mouth and essential for speech and suckling of infants * Manipulates food between the teeth, taste buds detect food flavor, and lingual gland secretes saliva * Allows breathing and chewing at the same time * Breaks down food into smaller pieces and increases surface area * Production of saliva which moistens and binds food into a bolus |
PHARYNXpH | * Skeletal muscle tube * Superior, Middle, and Inferior Pharyngeal Constrictors | * Force food downwards during swallowing |
ESOPHAGUSpH | * Muscular Tube 25 to 30 cm * Cardiac Orifice * Lower Esophageal Sphincter * Esophageal Glands | * Holds food briefly before entering the stomach * Allows food into the stomach, prevents stomach contents from regurgitating into the esophagus and protecting esophageal mucosa from the erosive effect of stomach acid * Secretes lubricating mucus into the lumen |
STOMACHpH | * J-shaped smooth muscle sac * Cardiac Region * Fundus Region * Body * Pyloric Region * Rugae * Gastric Glands * Pepsin * Hydrochloric Acid | * Breaks up food particles, liquefies the food to from chyme * Holding area for food and gases * Holds food and the largest portion * Creates the Pyloric Sphincter with S.I. which opens allowing the stomach contents into the S.I * Provides additional surface area surface area that allows distention of the stomach wall to accommodate food * Produces Gastric Juice which is an acidic secretion of the stomach wall composed of water, hydrochloric acid, and pepsin * Begins chemical digestion of protein molecules and fat * Activates pepsin and lingual lipase, breaks up connective tissue and plant cell walls, and destroys ingested bacteria and pathogens |
SMALL INTESTINEpH | * Duodenum * Jejunum * Ileum * Intestinal crypts * Villi...