HESI REVIEW 2014
MATERIAL COVERED BEFORE MS2
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48–72 hours after being admitted. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection, rather than a virus.
HAP is the second most common nosocomial infection (urinary tract infection is the most common) and accounts for 15–20% of the total. It is the most common cause of death among nosocomial infections and is the primary cause of death in intensive care units.
HAP typically lengthens a hospital stay by 1–2 weeks.
Risk factors Among the factors contributing to contracting HAP are mechanical ventilation (ventilator-associated pneumonia), old age, decreased filtration of inspired air, intrinsic respiratory, neurologic, or other disease states that result in respiratory tract obstruction, trauma, (abdominal) surgery, medications, diminished lung volumes, or decreased clearance of secretions may diminish the defenses of the lung. Also, poor hand-washing and inadequate disinfection of respiratory devices cause cross-infection and are important factors.
Meniere’s Disease- Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear that causes spontaneous episodes of vertigo — a sensation of a spinning motion — along with fluctuating hearing loss, ringing in the ear (tinnitus), and sometimes a feeling of fullness or pressure in your ear. In many cases, Meniere's disease affects only one ear.
People in their 40s and 50s are more likely than people in other age groups to develop Meniere's disease, but it can occur in anyone, even children.
Although Meniere's disease is considered a chronic condition, various treatment strategies can help relieve symptoms and minimize the disease's long-term impact on your life.
Lumbar Punctures - A lumbar puncture (or LP, and colloquially known as a spinal tap) is a diagnostic and at times therapeutic medical procedure. Diagnostically it is...