How the British Empire took over India
The British Empire in India had no noticeable beginning. But perhaps the most obvious commencement of British power in India was when the British East India Company and the Nawab of Bengal faced off in the Battle of Plassey. As an outcome of a decisive victory over the natives, the Company annexed Bengal. Soon after, in 1765, the British East India Company got permission to collect revenue from in Bihar. In 1772, the Company established a capitol in Calcutta and appointed its first governor-general, Warren Hastings, and assumed political control over Bengal, Bihar, and Calcutta. Company rule ended in the Government in India Act of 1858, which transferred political governance of India to the British government.
The British East India Company was founded on December, 31 1600 with an approved charter from Queen Elizabeth I. The Company first acquired a foothold in India when the Mughal Emperor granted them the rights to establish a trading post in the city of Surat. In 1640, a second trading post was instituted in Madras. In 1668, the Company leased Bombay Island, which used to be a Portuguese colony, as a dowry of the marriage between Catherine of Braganza and Charles II. In 1687, the Company moved its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. Soon, the Company created a settlement in Calcutta, after again requesting permission from the Mughal Emperor. The Company had acquired a political and economic presence upon the subcontinent. Also during this period other companies, most notably the Portuguese, Dutch, French, and Danish, had similar successes in the Indian theatre of trade.
Although the Company ruled the areas of their factories and trading posts, the beginning of true British authority in India is often dated from the 1757 Battle of Plassey. In this battle the British faced off against the Nawab of Bengal and French allies. It solidified the Company's power in the region, and as a result annexed all of Bengal.