Lesson 3.2.2 How to Teach Children
Part 1: classical conditioning: discovered by Ivan Pavlov. It is a form of learning between two stimuli. The first step is the unconditioned stimulus, which produces a response called the unconditioned response. Then, the unconditioned stimulus pairs up with the conditioned stimulus until the subject can tell them apart. After the subject can tell the two stimuli apart, it presents the conditioned response by itself.
Operant conditioning: discovered or used by B. F. Skinner. There are two forms of operant conditioning. There is extinction, where a behavior that has been reinforced for a long time is no longer reinforced and spontaneous recovery, where the behavior that was no longer reinforced has suddenly been reinforced again. There is also generalization and discrimination which is also involved in classical conditioning.
Social learning theory: discovered or used by Albert Bandura. It uses the mental processes of learning and the environmental factors as well. Banduras theory was that we learn through observation. When we see something that becomes a model or role model for them, we begin to imitate them. An example was how viewing violence from a role model in person was more likely to take an effect on teenagers than violent videogames.
Part 2: a) classical conditioning and hot stove. To teach a child not to touch the stove, you could let the kid touch the hot stove so he can feel what the consequence would be which is getting burned. After that, his mind will get the message to not touch the stove or he will get burned.
b) Operant conditioning and potty training. What you could do is give the child something like a candy bar to go sit on the toilet. Then if they “do their business” on the toilet, you give them another candy bar. Overtime, they will eventually get the message of using the toilet is good and will get a treat from it.
c) Social learning theory and good manners. Having the child’s role model at the dinner...