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A Lifestyle's Disease

A Lifestyle's Disease
As human beings our lifestyle choices and habits can affect our risk for developing certain diseases. Tobacco dependence is the most common cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and smoking cessation is the most effective intervention to prevent further deterioration (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2011). The purpose of this paper is to research and discuss COPD and its relation to the lifestyle choice of tobacco dependence in the United States (U.S) and globally.   In addition, Pender’s Health Promotion Model will be applied to the prevention and management of COPD and smoking.
Introduction and Epidemiology
COPD is a major cause of chronic morbidity and is the fourth most common cause of mortality worldwide (American Lung Association [ALA], 2011(ALA, 2011). According to the CDC (2011), approximately 12 million Americans have been diagnosed with COPD, but at least another 12 million Americans may be undiagnosed.   COPD death rates are higher among men than women, however, over the past 20 years, the number of COPD death rates among American women has increased much faster than those among men (CDC, 2011). Annually, in the U.S. there are more than 120,000 deaths due to COPD (Dunphy, Winland-Brown, Porter, & Thomas, 2011).
In relation to race differences, COPD death rates are higher among whites than among African Americans or persons of other races (CDC, 2011).   Men have a higher COPD death rate than women, however, over the past 20 years, the number of COPD death rates among women has increased between 1980 and 2000 (CDC, 2011). Furthermore, the average length of hospitalization for COPD in 1993 was 6.9 days and physician office visits for COPD accounted for 14.3 million (Viegi, Scognamiglio, Baldacci, Pistelli, & Carrozi, 2001).
Moreover, an estimated 64 million people have COPD worldwide in 2004 and more than 3 million people died of COPD in 2005, which is equal to 5%...

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