Dementia is not a disease in itself. Dementia is a word used to describe a group of symptoms. These can include the gradual loss of memory, communication skills and the ability to think and reason clearly.
In dementia, brain cells stop working properly. This happens inside specific areas. The areas are:
Cerebrum- Dementia with lewy bodies (DLB) affects the cerebrum. In DLB small, round lumps of proteins build up in the grey matter. These spheres harm nerve cells, causing the symptoms of DLB including hallucinations and fluctuations in consciousness. This area can also be affected by vascular dementia, the second most common cause of dementia after alzheimer’s. Vascular dementia is caused by blood flow to the brain being reduced. Blood carries essential oxygen and nourishment to the brain and without it brain cells die.
Frontal lobe- Frontotemporal dementia or (FTD) affects this area of the brain. There are different types of frontotemporal dementia. Some affect the temporal lopes early on and patients behave inappropriately and often experience personality changes. Frontotemporal dementia is caused by proteins building up in the brain, harming nerve cells.
Temporal lope- The hippocampus is affected by alzheimers disease. Two proteins, amyloid and tau, build up and damage nerve cells. This build up starts in the hippocampus before spreading to other brain areas. The damaged nerve cells in the hippocampus mean this part of the brain can’t function properly, which can lead to the early symptoms of alzheimers – memory loss and disorientation. The temporal lope is affected by frontotemporal dementia, a rare type of dementia. There are different types of dementia some affect the temporal lopes early on and patients have problems with language, speech and factual knowledge about the world.
Parietal lobe- This part of the brain is affected by posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) a rare type of alzheimers. Because this part of the brain helps us see,...