First written assignment Module # 2
1) The two types of Utilitarianism are act and rule. Act Utilitarianism is the most basic form and its meaning is simply that one must mull the different consequences of a single act and decipher the best outcome for the greater good of those involved. So if I were to plan a vacation I need to consider how the whole family would respond to my choice. Do I decide to go where I want or where everyone will experience great happiness? When I act in a utilitarian way I would choose the Disney trip rather than the fishing trip so that my family can enjoy themselves with me rather than watch me enjoy myself.
Rule Utilitarianism takes far more than the single act into account before making a decision. You go over and over the consequences in an attempt to justify and make it a rule, you need to maximize happiness. In a rule utilitarian decision I would have to consider the longer term effects of wanting to take them fishing. Would they resent me forever if I made them go or would they think the world of me if we were to have a great family adventure at Disney? What will produce long term happiness?
2) The declining marginal utility of money can be simply stated that as one acquires more goods or utilities as there income grows and they accumulate more stuff the less actual enjoyment they get from their purchases. I for one remember that I would get great enjoyment from buying myself nice shirts when I first became a professional. Now seeing I have stopped growing I still fit into most of these shirts. Now when I make these purchases to replace worn/stained shirts I do not actually enjoy that feeling as much. Thus explains my declining marginal utility. I no longer get the excitement of making those purchases; in fact I am close to a negative margin.
3) The three principles of entitlement are Justice in Acquisition meaning the ability to collect and or own certain items and or property. Justice in Transfer is the meaning the...