Question no.: 4. Define Motivation. Critically evaluate contribution of Mc Gregor to motivation.
Definition of motivation:
Motivation is a driving force that initiates and directs behavior. It is a kind of internal energy which drives a person to do something in order to achieve. It is a temporal or dynamic state within a person which is not concerned with his/her personality.
Types of motivation are achievement, affiliation, competence, power, and attitude.
Motivation is based on three specific aspects such as the arousal of behavior, the direction of behavior, and persistence of behavior. Arousal of behavior involves what activates human behavior. Direction of behavior is concerned with direction of behavior towards a specific goal. Persistence of behavior is concerned with how the behavior is sustained.
Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous X-Y theory in his 1960 book 'The Human Side of Enterprise'. Theory x and theory y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation. While more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model. McGregor’s X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques. McGregor maintained that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results. Enlightened managers use theory y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop.
According to McGregor, Theory X assumes the following:
• Work is inherently distasteful to most people; they will attempt to avoid work whenever possible.
• Most people are indifferent to organizational goals.
• Most people are self-centered. As a result, they must be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational objectives
• Most people are lazy, avoid responsibilities and resist change
Essentially, theory x assumes that the primary source of...