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Below is an essay on "Musculoskeletal" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

Musculoskeletal Pathophysiology Bones

Bone remodeling
Minerals have to be deposited into the bones and to be remodeled
Osteoblasts = builds the bone
Osteoclasts = corroding the bone, originate from stem cell
  * Big cells, a number of nuclei
  * Ruffled edges to increase surface area
  * Mineral resorption (dissolves crystals and releases minerals into the blood)
  * Acid dissolves the bone minerals
Things can do wrong
  * Preventing bones from generating in other parts of the body
  * Inhibitors include hydroxyapatite crystal deposition and thus not calcify
  * Calcification of arteries
SMC (Smooth muscle cells) in calcification
Media
Contractile phenotype
Low proliferation, low synthesis, expression of SMC markers

Intima
Synthetic phenotype
Proliferative, migratory, secretory
Osteoblast-like phenotype
Mineralising, expression of osteoblast markers

It is more common to have hypocalcemia than hypercalcemia

Common cause of hypercalcemia is thyroid tumour
Calcium homeostasis
  * Controlled by 3 hormones: calcitriol, calcitonin and PTH (parathyroid hormone)

Calcium is not strong/high enough   weak bones
Calcium into blood from our bones (99% Ca stored)
  * Two hormones to tell osteoclast to reabsorb Ca out of the bones and back into the blood (PRH and Calcitriol) or redeposited into the bones via osteoblast
  * Adults have low levels of calcitonin (children have higher levels since their bones are still forming, stronger effect in children)

Calcitriol (Activated Vit D)
Precursor steroid in our skin   exposed to UV   Converted to Vit D3 Cholecalciferol   Calcidiol   Calcitriol (Vit D)   Bone resorption

Vitamin D deficiency (chronic) in children
  * Abnormal softness of bone (rickets) and osteomalacia (in adults)
Osteomalacia
  * Little deposition of Ca crystals
Vitamin D:
Calcium in blood in the gut and bone resorption

PTH
  * Released by tiny parathyroid gland on the posterior aspect of thyroid gland...

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Musculoskeletal. Anti Essays. Retrieved December 14, 2018, from the World Wide Web: http://parimatch-stavka7.com/free-essays/Musculoskeletal-759413.html


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