• Organized large projects
• Competitive lead to civilizations
• Required specialization and people of skill
• Result of the needs of commerce, military, trade of what the elites needed
• Population density in cities lead to competition to resources, lead to warfare and lead to expansion and it lead to the need to have some sort of formal organization.
In Mesopotamia chiefdoms were very competitive over food, water and many other things. It’s important to know this was a gradual and evolutionary process. The people worked by trial and error as they went along.
At the heart of all the civilizations are the development of cities, cities were centers of cultural production, administration/polotics. They produced art and literature. Cities were centers for local and long distance trade. Also became centers of manufacturing, produced people who had specialized jobs whom manufactured things. Produced goods for the elits and some commoners and long distance trade. These cities produced larger populations, more job specialization and of course greater inequality.
Civilization lead to the erosion of equality, not only between one group and another also between men and women. We think class differentiation began with people who began to specialize in crafts and other proffessional trades (accumulated wealth). Also priests military men. Social system based upon power and wealth. Most social systems become organized this way. The organization of people based upon power or wealth is a major turning point in human history.
1. Urban elites: King, Military, Nobility, priests, people who have access to wealth and power. They generally avoided physical labor and flaunted they richez, and controlled religious, political, military life.
2. Commoners: Free, artisans, merchants, farmers, peasants. Do a lot of the work, produce most of all resources in the civilization. Made up the majority of the population. Most of their excess resources went to the urban...