Nitration of Methylbenzoate
The aim of the experiment is to successfully perform the nitration of Methylbenzoate by the recrystalisation method and in doing so obtaining a melting point and the infra-red spectra graph of the product.
Methylbenzoate is an aromatic compound and it is structurally related to Benzene. It has an electron rich aromatic ring which makes it vulnerable to electrophiles this in turn making them react. A common electrophile is used in this reaction, which is the NO2+ nitronium ion. It is produced by reacting nitric acid and sulphuric acid simultaneously. The lone pair from oxygen breaks the OH bond when it comes in contact with sulphuric acid. Furthermore, NO2OH2 break and dissociate to form H2O water along with the electrophiles NO2. The electrons from the benzene ring attack NO2 causing the double bond to break. Multiple resonance is created from the movement of electrons. The hydrogen atom which is released reacts with HSO4 to make sulphuric acid H2SO4 which is known to be used as a catalyst.
The mechanism is as follows:
Health and safety:
|Chemical Name |Oxidising |Flammable |Toxic |Harmful |Corrosive |Irritant |Carcinogenic |
|Sulphuric acid | | | | | | | |
|Methyl Benzoate | | | | | | | |
|Methanol | | | | | | | |
|Nitric Acid | | | | | | | |
You will be using very harmful drugs so before starting make sure te following instructions are carried out.
• Wear plastic gloves all through out the experiment...