Child development experts have long recognised the central influence that family relationships, especially the relationship between parent and child, have on the healthy growth and socialization of individuals (Park RD, Buriel R, 1998).
Parents have different approaches to rearing their children dependant on parenting style, methods of enforcing restrictions on behaviour, culture and tradition and social learning. Dr. Diana Baumrind, a renowned psychologist from the University of California, conducted a study on 100 pre-school aged children and their parents in 1967 using observation and interview techniques. As a result of the study, Dr Baumrind identified three distinct parenting styles. Several years later in 1983 a forth style was identified by Maccoby and Martin.
Dr Baumrind created four main categories to identify the four different parenting styles; demanding, undemanding, responsiveness and unresponsiveness. The level of demand a parent makes on their child, and the level of responsiveness to their child’s wants and needs categorizes each parenting style.
Authoritative Parenting (Demanding/Responsive)
Categorized by a high level of demand and responsiveness, this style of parenting is considered to be an ideal, balanced style. Authoritative parents value both expressive and instrumental attributes (e.g. autonomous self-will and discipline conformity), yet they assume the ultimate responsibility for their children’s interests and idiosyncratic ways (Slater A, Bremmer G, 2003). The parent encourages verbal give and take and shares with the child reasoning behind the policy. The children are very independent yet know their limits. Punishments given by the parents are reasonable and consistent with the child’s behaviour. Authoritative parents are not afraid to let their children know they are loved on a regular basis by easily expressing affection. Children who are raised within this style of parenting grow up to be independent, responsible adults...