Management. In either case, long-range planning ends up being neglected. Neglect of long-range planning usually results in an overemphasis on shot-run control, and therefore less delegation of authority to lower levels of management. This often has adverse effects on employee motivation and satisfaction.
2.2.7 The Decision Making Process
Decisions should be thought of as means rather than ends. They are the organizational mechanisms by which an attempt is made to achieve a desired state. They are, in effect, an organizational response to a problem. Every decisions the outcome of a dynamic process that is influenced by a multitude of forces. Although this process is diagrammed in Figure 17-1, it is not a fixed procedure. It is a sequential process rather than a series of steps. This enables us to examine each element in the normal progression that leads to a decision.
Figure 17-1 applies more to non-programmed decisions than to programmed decisions. Problems that occur infrequently, with a great deal of uncertainty and risk surrounding the outcome required that the manager utilize the entire process. For problems that occur frequently the entire process is not necessary. If a policy is established to handle such problems, managers do not need to develop and evaluate alternatives each time a problem of this kind arises
Establishing Specific Goals and objectives and Measuring Results
Organizations need goals and objectives in each area where performance influences effectiveness. Adequately established goals and objectives will dictate which results must be achieved and which measures indicate whether those results have been achieved. As part of the goal and objective-setting process, top management must communicate their tolerance for experimentation and failure on the part of subordinates. In the absence of such communication, middle and lower level managers will attempt to zero-out risk, a situation that involves avoiding any potential failures 9and...