Chapter 1: Sigmund Freud
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
1. Describe the development of the psychoanalytic approach to personality.
2. Provide a foundation of psychoanalytic thought through the study of its founder, Sigmund Freud.
3. Describe the structure of personality: the Id, the Ego, and the Superego.
4. Explain the concepts of Defense Mechanisms against Anxiety.
5. Detail the Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development.
6. Describe Free Association and Dream Analysis used by Freud for assessment.
A) The Life of Freud
1 Born in Moravia in 1856.
2 Freud had a passionate, sexual attachment towards his mother and childhood hostility towards his meek father.
3 There were eight children in the family, but Sigmund had special privileges, such as his own room.
4 Because Freud lacked an independent income, he entered private practice in Vienna.
5 He studied with Jean Charcot in Paris and learned how to use the technique of hypnotism for the treatment of neurosis.
6 Freud became convinced that sexual conflicts were the primary cause of all neurosis. Freud claimed that childhood fantasies of sexual events were quite common for all children.
7 Freud’s attitude toward sex was negative and felt that sex was degrading, because it contaminated the mind and body.
8 Freud, although having children, felt resentful toward his sex life with his wife. Freud diagnosed himself, as having an anxiety neurosis as he learned to psychoanalyze himself through the study of dreams. He was able to recall his dreams and interpret their meanings.
9 Freud began to publish articles and books and he also presented papers at scientific meetings. His disciples or followers included Carl Jung and Alfred Adler. Jung later broke with Freud in disputing Freud’s approach to psychoanalysis. Freud received an honorary...