Explanation of how modern genetic technology may lead to personalized medicine.
In 1990 a project was launched to with the “objective of determining the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence of the entire human genome within 15 years (Cial, 2008). This project was known as the Human Genome Project. This research was done in two different phases. The first phase of the project was called the shotgun phase. It was used to divide the “human chromosomes into segments. Additionally the scientist also sub-divided DNA into smaller, overlapping fragments of DNA that were already sequenced (Cial, 2008).”
The second phase of the project was called the finishing phase. This phase of the projected “involved filling in the gaps and resolving DNA sequences in ambiguous areas not obtained in the shotgun phase (Cial, 2008)” of the project.
By 2003, the research was concluded and it was competed two years earlier than first predicted. This research has been found to be invaluable. The Human Genome project was able to decode the makeup of human genetics. “The shotgun phase was able to yield ninety percent of the human genome in draft form, and the finishing phase yielded ninety-nine percent of the human genome in the final form, which is 2.85 billion nucleotides, with a predicted error rate of 1 event per 100,000 bases sequenced (Cial, 2008).”
Projects such as Human Genome Project have lead researches to astonishing findings. It has given researchers the ability to see differences in human genes and ability to find medicines that will work to reverse medical problems, such as breast cancer. Through this research, researchers have found that in breast cancer the Her2/neu gene is a pre-cursor to breast cancer. All breasts are coated in this gene. Its role is signal-transduction pathways involved with cell growth and differentiation. When it becomes overactive it disturbs normal cell signaling stimulates abnormal cell growth, that turn into tumors.