Ch 50- Acid Controlling drugs
Antacids- Neutralize stomach acids
-Aluminum Salts- constipating effects, often used w/ magnesium to counteract, often used with patients with renal disease (easily excreted)
-Magnesium salts- commonly cause diarrhea
-Calcium salts- may cause constipation and kidney stones, long duration of acid action,
-Sodium Bicarbonate- quick onset, short duration. May cause metabolic alkalosis, sodium content may cause problems w/ patients w/ HF hypertension
Give meds 1-2 hours after antacid
Antiflatulents- drugs: Simethicone, Activated Charcoal
H2 Antagonists- reduce acid secretion
Cimetidine (Tagament)- Binds with P-450, resulting in increased drug levels
Smoking decreases effectiveness of h2 blockers
Proton Pump Inhibitors- achlorhydria—ALL gastric acid secretion is temporarily blocked
Used for GERD maintenance therapy, Erosive esophagitis, Short-term treatment of active duodenal and benign gastric ulcers, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, Treatment of H. pylori–induced ulcers.
Proton pump inhibitors often work best when taken 30 to 60 minutes before meals
Pantoprazole (Protonix)- specifically indicated treatment of h pylori, may increase bleeding with warfarin.
Sucralfate (Carafate)- forming a protective barrier over ulcers, give other drugs at least 2 hours before sucralfate, may be used in chronic renal failure to reduce phosphate levels
Misoprostol (Cytotec)- Used for prevention of NSAID-induced gastric ulcers, Protect gastric mucosa from injury by enhancing local production of mucus
Ch 51- Bowel Disorder Drugs
-Adsorbents: Coat walls of GI tract, bind to causative bacteria or toxin then eliminated through stool. Examples: bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol). Increased bleeding time. Blue Gums, Tinnitis, hearing loss, dark stools. Decreased absorption of digoxin, clindamycin, quinidine, hypoglycemic drugs. NO PEPTO BISMOL TO...