Planning is looking ahead and controlling is looking back
Planning is a basic managerial function. It involves deciding on a course of action in advance. Planning is deciding what is to be done, where and how the work is to be done and who will do the particular task. We can say planning is to produce schemes for future action, to bring about specified results and specified cost, in a specified period of time. It’s a deliberate, extent, speed and effects of change. On the other hand, controlling is a procedure for measuring performance against objects. Controlling consist in verifying whether everything occurs in conformity with the plan adopted, the instructions issued and principles established. Its object is to point out weaknesses and error in order to rectify them and prevent recurrence. In short controlling facilitates the compliment of the plans. Although planning must preside controlling, plans are not self achieve. Plans guide managers in the use of the resources to the accomplishment of the goals set.
Planning and controlling are two separate functions of management, yet they are closely related. The scope of activities if both is overlapping to each other. Without the basis of planning, controlling activities becomes baseless. In general terms, planning is like worrying about the future, except it is more systematic. Planning is concerned with questions like "What if?" For example, what if it rains tomorrow? Don't we need a wet-weather programme or forecast just in case it rains?
Control is like regretting about the past, because you are not letting go of the past. Control is concerned with statements like "If only". For example, if only I had done this, then things would have turned out differently.
If you wish to make an assignment out of this topic, you will need to consider all the ramifications of "what if" and "if only". Are they positive or negative? Also, how about the present? Would it help to focus on the present instead of...