Psychology- Chapter 1
I. What is Psychology?
A. Psychology’s Roots
• To be human is to be curious about ourselves and the world around us.
• Aristotle suggested that the source of our personality is the heart.
1. Psychological Science is Born
• The birth of psychology- December 1879; University of Leipzig, Germany.
• Wilhelm Wundt tried to create an experimental apparatus by measuring the time lag between people’s hearing a ball hit a platform and their pressing a telegraph key.
• Wundt was seeking to measure “atoms of the mind”.
• The first psychological laboratory began.
• Psychology became organized into different branches, or school of thought, Structuralism and Functionalism.
• Edward Bradford Titchener (A student if Wundt’s) wanted to discover the structure of the mind. He engaged people in self-reflective introspection (looking inward).
• William James- Philosopher/Psychologist
• James thought it would be “more fruitful” to consider the evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings.
• James assumed that thinking was developed because it was adaptive.
• He believed consciousness served as a function.
• Early pioneers were predominantly men.
• In 1890, William James admitted Mary Whiton Calkins into his graduate seminar.
• Fact: When Calkins joined, the other students (all men) dropped out.
• Calkins became the American Psychological Association’s (APA’s) first female president in 1905.
• Margaret Floy Washburn- the first woman to receive a psychology Ph.D. and the second female president in 1921.
2. Psychological Science Develops
• For early pioneers, psychology was defined as “the science of mental life”.
• Behaviorists- became one of psychology’s two major forces.
-Behaviorism= the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
• 2 Provocative Psychologists:
1. John B. Watson
2. B. F. Skinner
- Both dismissed introspection and redefined psychology as...