RULERS AND THE POWER TO RULE
Early societies had the belief that in order to be a ruler, one had to be chosen by the gods or god. Later years proved that ruling governments would be recognized by the territories and people rather than the ruling families or dynasties.
The Emperor reigned between the founding of Qin Dynasty of China, united by the King of Qin in 221 BCE, and the fall of Yuan Shikai's Empire of China in 1916. When referred to as the” Son of Heaven”. The Emperor was recognized as the ruler of "All under heaven"1 The ancient Zhou dynasty held the belief that the kings and emperors were therefore chosen by the gods to righteously lead the people because of this divine intervention. As stated in the Dong Zhongshu, Essays on Kingship, “Thus the King is but the executor of Heaven.2”
The rulers of Rome on the other hand, had adopted the ideals of city-states rather than regional kingdoms. The use of the word “republic” has its origins in ancient Roman times. “The republic was form of government in which authority was thought to reside in a group of citizens rather than one family or individual”3 Citizens were free to choose who would represent them and their ideas and thus could help to rule the community in which they lived.
The ancient Greeks set up the Polis or city-state but the outcome of this led to more conflicts because of lack of land and resources. Men and boys were forced into the army to defend and conquer. The idea that people could rule themselves was falling by the wayside as the military gave itself more power than the ruling body.