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Chapter 1 Classifying Plants and Animals

Cell:   the smallest part of a living thing that can perform all life processes

Nucleus:   the control center of the cell

Cytoplasm:   a gel-like substance that contains the things that the cell needs to carry out its life processes

Chloroplasts: special parts in plant cells that trap the Sun’s energy

Genus:   a group of closely related living things

Species:   a group of similar organisms that can mate and produce offspring

Vertebrates:   animals that have a backbone

Invertebrates:   animals without a backbone

All plant and animal cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and a nucleus. Cells that look similar can have different jobs.

We use microscopes to magnify small details of cells that we couldn’t see with just our eyes.

Cells work together to form:
Organ systems

A living thing in its entirety is called an organism.

Scientists sort all living things into different groups.   When they do this, they classify them.

The largest group is a kingdom.   There are six kingdoms.   All animals belong to one kingdom.   All plants belong to another kingdom.

Fungi (like mushrooms) live on land and absorb their food from other living and nonliving things.

When scientists classify organisms,   they sort them by asking questions like:

-how many cells does the organism have?
-where does it live?
-how does it get its food?

The kingdoms are divided into smaller groups.   The two smallest groups of the animal kingdom are genus and species.  

An organism’s scientific name has two parts.   The first name comes from the genus.   The second name comes from the species.

Classifying Plants

Vascular plants have tubelike structures that transport water and nutrients within the plant.   Some examples of vascular plants are:   bamboo, grass, dandelions, celery, and trees.

Nonvascular plants such as mosses, grow low to the ground and can pass water and...

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