SENSORY, MOTOR, AND INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMS
Suggested Lecture Outline
A. The components of the brain interact to receive sensory input, integrate and store the information, and transmit motor responses.
B. To accomplish the primary functions of the nervous system there are neural pathways to transmit impulses from receptors to the circuitry of the brain, which manipulates the circuitry to form directives that are transmitted via neural pathways to effectors as a response.
A. Sensation is a conscious or unconscious awareness of external or internal stimuli. Perception is the conscious awareness and interpretation of sensations.
1. Modality is the property by which one sensation is distinguished from another.
2. In general, a given sensory neuron carries only one modality.
3. The classes of sensory modalities are general senses and special senses.
a. The general senses include both somatic and visceral senses, which provide information about conditions within internal organs.
b. The special senses include the modalities of smell, taste, vision, hearing, and equilibrium.
C. Components of Sensation
1. For a sensation to arise, four events must occur.
2. These are stimulation, transduction, conduction, and translation.
a. A stimulus, or change in the environment, capable of initiating a nerve impulse by the nervous system must be present.
b. A sensory receptor or sense organ must pick up the stimulus and transduce (convert) it to a nerve impulse by way of a generator potential.
c. The impulse(s) must be conducted along a neural pathway from the receptor or sense organ to the brain.
d. A region of the brain or spinal cord must translate the impulse into a sensation.
D. Sensory Receptors
1. Classification of Sensory Receptors
a. On a microscopic level, sensory receptors are free nerve...