The changing population in China over the past 50 years
Over the past 30 years, China has been in the process of rapid economic development, with GDP keeping increasing every year. When we look at the following three population pyramids of China crossing from 1960s to 2010s, there are several differences can be indicated due to not only economic but also social and political factors.
The population pyramid of China in 1964 is a typical progressive one, which shows a wide base and narrow top with no obvious gender imbalance. It indicates a higher birth rate as well as death rate like all other developing countries. According to the data from “United States Census Bureau”, the crude birth rate in 1964 is over 40 (per 1000 population), crude death rate over 15 and infant mortality rate over 73 (per 1000 births). The 0-15 age group is dominant since they are of the most length.
When it comes to 1990, the population pyramid still gets a wide base and narrow top, however CBR has dropped to 21, CDR to 7 and IMR decreasing drastically to 43. The 15-25 age group now has a larger proportion.
We can identify a more apparent change in population structure from the pyramid of 2010. The base is narrower compared with the previous two and the number of 0-4 age group decreases from 121 to 86 million in the past 20 years; the top gets wider due to the fact that there are more and more ageing population increasing from 71 to 100 million. There are a larger percentage of people of 35-45 and it makes the pyramid have a wider body in the center. The growth rate remains constant at 0.5% and the IMR decreases to 17.
Across from 1964 to 2010, the dependency ratio keeps dropping drastically from 78.3% to 49.8%, then to only 34% in 2010. It suggests that there are much more labor force in recent years.
Generally speaking, the three population pyramids indicate that not only crude birth rate but also crude death rate and infant mortality rate decrease at a...