Briefly describe the overall structure of the digestive system with reference to all the major organs
The function of the digestive system is “the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods and the absorption of nutrients by cells”(1)
The structure of the digestive system consists of the alimentary canal which is 9 meters in length. Its starts at the mouth and ends at the anus with the accessory organs.
Mouth-Consist of the tongue, taste buds, palate , palatine tonsils and teeth.
Pharynx-is the nasal and oral cavitys.
Oesophagus- a muscular tube leading to the stomach
Stomach-pouch shapped organ.
Small intestine-organ that contains 3 parts.
Large intestine- starts at the ileum contains the caecum and colon and ends at the rectum.
Salivary glands- There are 3: Parotid, submandibular and sublingual.
Liver- It has 2 lobes
Describe the process of digestion
The digestion of food begins in the mouth which contains the tongue which moves food around making it easier to chew and also contains the taste buds, palate , palatine tonsils and teeth. The tooth has 4 layers which are the crown, the root, the enamel and dentin. These all contribute to digestion by reducing the size of the food, taste the food (which makes food enjoyable), and also protects against infection.
The food then continues its journey through the pharynx to the muscular tube called the oesophagus. The food then passes to the stomach through the cardiac sphincter (which prevents food from moving back up the oesophagus), where it squeezes and mixes the food together with the gastric juices. After the movement of the stomach and the mixing of gastric juices has run its course, whats left is a food paste called chyme. Chyme then continues its journey by moving through the pyloric sphincter valve into the small intestine which is a “tublular organ that extends from the pyloric sphincter, many loops and coils, fill much of the...