The working memory model was foundered by Braddeley and Hitch in 1974. It’s an alternative model which addresses the short term or immediate memory and adds to the original formulation by Atkinson and Shiffrin. It appears that immediate memory is not a unitary store as was first though; rather it is a combination of several temporary memory systems working together.
Braddeley and Hitch came about this model as they both realised that if you do two thing at the same time and they are both visual tasks, you perform them less well that if you do them separately. Whereas, if you do two things at the same time and one is visual whilst the other involves sound, then there is no interference. You do them as well simultaneously as you would do them separately, which suggests that there is one store for visual processing and one store for processing sounds, as portrayed by the model.
There are four components of the working model and these components are the central executive, the phonological loop, the visuo-spatial sketchpad and lastly the episodic buffer.
The central executive is the key component of the working memory model. Its function is to control attention and coordinate the data that arrives from the senses or the long term memory, determining at any time which of the other three components it should go to. The central executive can briefly store this data, yet has a very limited capacity. Bunge et al. (2000) produced evidence to support the central executive. He thought the activity in the central executive should be increased when an individual has to perform two tasks simultaneously (dual-task) rather than one after the other (single-task,) and so used an fMRI scan on the brain. Participants did the two tasks of reading a sentence and recalling the final word in each sentence. The same areas of the brain were active in either dual-or-single-task conditions but there was significantly more activation in the dual-task condition, indicating that increased...