Jean Watson published her first book, Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring in 1979. This book formed the basis of her theory of human caring. Watson has since published several other books continually revising and updating her theory. In 2008, Watson wrote Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring, revised edition. This is the most recent and thorough revision of her theory of caring science. In the introduction, Watson writes,
Caring begins with being present, open to compassion, mercy, gentleness, loving-kindness, and equanimity toward and with self before one can offer compassionate caring to others. It begins with a love of humanity and everything that is living: the immanent, subtle, radiant, shadow-and-light vicissitudes of experiences along the way-honoring with reverence the mystery, the unknowns, the impermanence and changes but actively, joyfully participating in all of it, the pain, the joy, and everything (Watson, 2008).
Concept of Watson’s Theory
The foundation of Watson’s theory consists of the carative factors, the transpersonal caring relationship, and the caring moment. The original carative factors eventually evolved into today’s Caritas Processes. According to Watson Caring Science Institute (2012), the 10 Caritas Processes are,
1. Embrace altruistic values and Practice loving kindness with self and others. 2. Instill faith and hope and honor others. 3. Be sensitive to self and others by nurturing individual beliefs and practices. 4. Develop helping – trusting- caring relationships. 5. Promote and accept positive and negative feelings as you authentically listen to another’s story. 6. Use creative scientific problem-solving methods for caring decision making. 7. Share teaching and learning that addresses the individual needs and comprehension styles. 8. Create a healing environment for the physical and spiritual self which respects human dignity. 9. Assist with basic...